Monday, May 25, 2020
Comparing Themes in CatÃ¢â¬â¢s Cradle and Slaughterhouse Five Throughout his career, Kurt Vonnegut has used writing as a tool to convey penetrating messages and ominous warnings about our society. He skillfully combines vivid imagery with a distinctly satirical and anecdotal style to explore complex issues such as religion and war. Two of his most well known, and most gripping, novels that embody this subtle talent are Cats Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five. Both books represent VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s genius for manipulating fiction to reveal glaring, disturbing and occasionally redemptive truths about human nature. On the surface, CatÃ¢â¬â¢s Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five are dramatically different novels, each with its own characters, symbols,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, Vonnegut asserts that although God may not exist, free will may not exist either. In Slaughterhouse-Five, he summarizes his opinions with the comment; among the things Billy Pilgrim could not change were the past, the present, and the future (SF 60). According to the Tra lfamadorians, time is constant, and not dynamic. To them, all moments, past, present, and future, always have existed, always will existÃ¢â¬Å¾.they can see how permanent all the moments are (SF 27). Because of this, the decisions we make are not due to free will; instead, they occur because everybody has to do exactly what he does (SF 198). In CatÃ¢â¬â¢s Cradle, Jonah, the main character, does not travel through time as Billy Pilgrim does, yet he is able to come to the same realization that time is more like a static stretch of mountains than a flowing river. However, unlike Billy, Jonah must discover this without the help of the Tralfamadorians. When Jonah experiences a Bokononist vision of the unity in every second of all time and all wandering mankind (CC 67), he is finally able to understand how all of time is connected. Billy and Jonah both have unique insights into the nature of time, consequently, they have resigned themselves to fate; neither of them cares about death or life because they know that they are helpless to change the future. Whenever Jonah recounts a story,
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Research Methodology Ã¢â¬ ¢ Title A study of the effect of bribery and corruption with lack of censorship in the governmental institution There are various reasons why corruption takes place and takes hold. Sometimes it is due to the fact that officials are simply not paid very much and so they need to supplement their salaries with money from bribes. Sometimes the bureaucratic system is set up in such a way that officials simply refuse to carry out their duties unless they are Ã¢â¬ËencouragedÃ¢â¬â¢ by being offered bribes. In other cases it is actually part of the tradition and culture of a country to give and receive Ã¢â¬ËgiftsÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to get anything done. In some cases companies from less corrupt countries allegedly engage in bribery in orderÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mostly, corruption occurs in environments where it is tolerated and where the temptation is too strong to resist. In the following paragraph there are some examples of how bribes take place in each and every one of them. The enormous scale of grand corruption in Peru was revealed in 2000 by discoveries leading to the resignation and selfÃ¢â¬âexile of the president, Alberto Fujimori. VideoÃ¢â¬âtaped evidence showed that Vladimir MontesanoÃ¢â¬â¢s, FujimoriÃ¢â¬â¢s spy chief, had repeatedly bribed congressmen to defect to FujimoriÃ¢â¬â¢s party to ensure its majority in congress. In addition, large bribes had enabled MontesanoÃ¢â¬â¢s to control most of the media and influence the judiciary. However, Fujimori is credited with having reduced petty corruption. His administration pursued policies reducing the role of government, which he justified not only on efficiency grounds, but on the grounds that reducing the role of government would reduce opportunities for corruption. He attempted to reduce corruption in the police and municipal governments, in the latter case by establishing a supervisory agency to field citizen complaints. However, his reforms of the judiciary are thought to have made it more corrupt. Despite some progress, however, several institutions with which ordinary people have much conta ct were judged to be corrupt by Transparency International in a November 2001 report. ast week did not begin well for Siemens CEO Klaus Kleinfeld, 49, and supervisory boardShow MoreRelatedBribery3420 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesBryan Jaeger Business and Ethics UI400-01 April 20, 2015 International Business and Bribery Have you ever bribed someone to let you do something that you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to do? As much as I hate to admit to it, I have done it my fair share of times. Bribery can be a good or bad thing depending on the situation and how the bribe is used. No matter what I believe that bribery can usually lead to bad consequences. Though it can happen for just small things such as slipping someone a 20 dollarRead MoreBribery Ã¢â¬â the Dilemma1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMexico where bribery is commonplace while at the same time trying to ensure that they do not violate their companies code of conduct or worse the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It is a fine line they walk. This paper will help those managers by explaining what bribery is, why it is thought to be an issue, show recently where companies have bribed and been caught as well as offer suggestions that will enable the U.S. manager in Mexico to accomplish what bribery accomplishes butRead MoreInter national Bribery Regulation And The Bribery Act 20101545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2.4 International Bribery Regulation and the Bribery Act 2010 2.4.1 Development of National and Transnational Ethics Regulations The development of national and international bribery legislation and regulation has been a slow process spanning many centuries, stemming from the recognition of Piracy as the first and true international crime (DuhaimeÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary, 2015). Although wide agreement exists on the detrimental impacts of bribery and corrupt practices, many individual countries and transnationalRead MoreCorruption and Bribery1795 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCorruption and Bribery April 29, 2015 Abstract In this paper, I will be writing about corruption and bribery. I will define the terms and go on to explain the regulations that have been put in place to stop corruption and bribery. I will then go on to give examples of major corruption and bribery scandals that companies have recently been in and what has been done to punish said companies for their crime. Intro Corruption is defined in the Merriam-Webster DictionaryRead MoreBribery Corruption2102 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesBribery and Corruption: Is Signing the OECD Convention Enough? Darina Tomayeva 500127919 LAW724 Professor Lan Word Count: 1645 Bribery and Corruption: Is Signing the OECD Convention Enough? Before the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, the conventional belief was that corruption in developing countries was practically inevitable and in some cases even desirable. However, a more in-depth investigation into this issue suggests that bribery and corruption can cause significant problems for all parties involved. ForRead MoreBribery And Corruption Of India716 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesemotionally and intellectually and the presentation of the case that gives a voice. The topic of bribery in India or any other countries for that matter, it is utmost important that we understand the points raised correctly and precisely. For this article, the viewpoint by the author was clear, coherent, and elaborated accordingly to the challenges faced by international firms in the form of bribery and corruption in doing business in the national or state level in India. For every argument, relevantRead MoreSiemens Ag Bribery1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSiemens AG Bribery Scandal This paper will focus on the analysis of the well-known and popular bribery scandal in the world, such as Siemens AG Bribery Scandal which occurred in November, 2006. Siemens AG is one of the largest and most popular electrical engineering companies operated in the world. The present company was founded in 1847 in Berlin and is now headquartered in Munich, Germany. The discussion and the proper analysis of this bribery scandal will help to learn many effective lessonsRead MoreBribery And Ethics Of The United States2208 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Bribery and Ethics Sarah A. Rowe Campbellsville University Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract Bribery has become a common term in the corporate world, specifically when international business deals are discussed. Until 1977, it was legal in the United States to bribe foreign officials in order to receive preference or a better business deal. But, the passing of the Foreign Corruption Practices Act of 1977 and its subsequent amendments made it a criminal act for any organization within the U.S. or foreign organizationRead MoreThe Bribery Scandal at Siemens Ag1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Ã¢â¬ ¢ In your opinion, is Ã¢â¬Å"bribingÃ¢â¬ unethical illegal or just a cost of doing business? Discuss this in light of SiemensÃ¢â¬â¢ bribery scandal. We believe that bribing is unethical because it takes away the fairness of a business transaction between bidders of a contract. Bribing also has a negative impact on competition because it allows for oligopolies and monopolies to emerge in an industry due to smaller competitors being unable to financially compete with the amount of the bribes. This inRead MoreWalmart de Mexicos Bribery Issue668 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesItÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly that Walmart de Mexico bribery scandal is far from over. Many investigations has been carried out to fully answer what acctually happened in the past, what system failed, and who was responsible for possible violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which bars bribery of foreign officials, but questions of accountability recently remain unanswered. It also means that Walmart leaders have succeeded in hiding all the important clues to avoid sanctions. The whole thing
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In Ã¢â¬Å"Sex, Lies, and Consent,Ã¢â¬ Tom Dougherty argues the Lenient Thesis from the substantive account of consent. In this essay, I will discuss and explain DoughertyÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Then, I will present Neil Manson s objection that Dougherty account of consent mistakenly centralizes the role of scope in determining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s range of restrictions for consent. Finally, I will present a case that disputes MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s opposition to Dougherty and how Dougherty could address MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s charge against him. To understand how Dougherty argues his position, we first need to understand the context of the Lenient Thesis. The Lenient Thesis states that Ã¢â¬Å"it is only a minor wrong to deceive another person into sex by misleading her or him about certain personalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the event where the salesmen sold her a rabid puppy, her consent would have been violated (Dougherty, 2013, p.735). When we apply this view of consent to the realm of sexual decision making, we see that many cases of deception for sex are non-consensual. Since the substantive account of consent emphasizes the importance of one determining oneÃ¢â¬â¢s restrictions, it conflicts with the Lenient Thesis that objectively assumes that certain types of features such as religion are more critical to sexual decision making. Dougherty (2013) supports her argument with an example where Chloe deceives Victoria into having sex by lying that she shares the same love of nature, peace, and animals even though she was in the military and enjoys hunting and eating animals. The Lenient Thesis would argue that Victoria validly consented since lying about a peripheral feature would only be a minor wrong. However, the substantive view of consent would disagree because personal preferences are still considered core features that constitute when consent is violated (Dougherty, 2013, p.728). Thus, it brings a more subjective view to the table where everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s deal-breaker should be valued. According to Dougherty (2013), deal-breakers are strong qualities that would disqualify someone as a sexual partner. Deal-breakers vary for every individual, and it is entirely up to the individuals to decide what their deal-breakers are. To relate this concept back to theShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesBennis, a colleague of ours, half-jokingly predicted that the factory of the future would have only two employees, a person and a dog. The person would be there to feed the dog. The dog would be there to keep the person from touching the equipment! Tom Peters counseled managers that, due to the chaotic pace of change, Ã¢â¬Å"If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not confused, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not paying attention.Ã¢â¬ And the late Peter Drucker characterized the current environment this way: Ã¢â¬Å"We are in one of those great historical periods that
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
After reading Thinking as a Hobby, it was apparent that the three statuettes were all very symbolic in their own unique way. The pure, effortless beauty that is portrayed by the nearly naked woman in a bath towel shows that beauty is so insanely important to the world in which we live. The second statuette talked about in this document is the leopard, which symbolizes nature. The way the leopard is positioned in the beginning of this piece of work symbolizes the way humans are always under the authority of nature, whether we want to admit it or not. Finally, we each the thinker.This is a very well known statue showing a man, chin to fist, elbow to knee, clearly symbolizing an image of pure thought. The Thinker also represents mans incessant quest for knowledge. In the beginning of this work, all three statuettes do basically in and of themselves, not really have to do with each other. We will write a custom essay sample on Thinking as a Hobby. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However, after they are rearranged, they all seem to take on a new symbol. Placing the woman in front of the A-AH does not make her seem to represent beauty; rather she seems to take on a sense of excessive vulnerability, not really knowing hat to do.Placing the thinker in front of the leopard absolutely changes every aspect of the symbols, which they represented. The thinker seems to turn to fear rather than thought. The leopard takes on the role of danger and threat, which are both ignoramus parts of human lives. It seems that simply placing these statuettes In different positions, allows them to take on an entirely new meaning, thus playing along with the whole theme of different levels of thought that was apparent throughout the work.
Friday, April 10, 2020
American Presidents Who Owned Slaves American presidents have a complicated history with slavery. Four of the first five presidents owned slaves while serving as president. Of the next five presidents, two owned slaves while president and two had owned slaves earlier in life. As late as 1850 an American president was the owner of a large number of slaves while serving in office. This is a look at the presidents who owned slaves. But first, its easy to dispense with the two early presidents who did not own slaves, an illustrious father and son from Massachusetts: The Early Exceptions John Adams:Ã The second president did not approve of slavery and never owned slaves. He and his wife Abigail were offended when the federal government moved to the new city of Washington and slaves were constructingÃ public buildings, including their new residence, the Executive Mansion (which we now call the White House). John Quincy Adams:Ã The son of the second president was a lifelong opponent of slavery. Following his single term as president in the 1820s he served in the House of Representatives, where he was often a vocal advocate for the end of slavery. For years Adams battled against the gag rule, which prevented any discussion of slavery on the floor of the House of Representatives. The Early Virginians Four of the first five presidents were products of a Virginia society in which slavery was a part of everyday life and a major component of the economy. So while Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe were all considered patriots who valued liberty, they all took slavery for granted. George Washington: The first president owned slaves for most of his life, beginning at the age of 11 when he inherited ten enslaved farm workers upon the death of his father. During his adult life at Mount Vernon, Washington relied on a varied workforce of enslaved people. In 1774, the number of slaves at Mount Vernon stood at 119. In 1786, after the Revolutionary War, but before Washingtons two terms as president, there were more than 200 slaves on the plantation, including a number of children. In 1799, following Washingtons tenure as president, there were 317 slaves living and working at Mount Vernon. The changes in slave population are partly due to Washingtons wife, Martha, inheriting slaves. But there are also reports that Washington purchased slaves during that period. For most of Washingtons eight years in office the federal government was based inÃ Philadelphia. To skirt a Pennsylvania law that would grant a slave freedom if he or she lived within the state for six months, Washington shuttled slaves back and forth to Mount Vernon. When Washington died his slaves were freed according to a provision in his will. However, that did not end slavery at Mount Vernon. His wife owned a number of slaves, which she did not free for another two years. And when Washingtons nephew, Bushrod Washington, inherited Mount Vernon, a new population of slaves lived and worked on the plantation. Thomas Jefferson: It has been calculatedÃ that Jefferson owned more than 600 slaves over the course of his life. At his estate, Monticello, there would have usually been an enslaved population of about 100 people. The estate was kept running by slave gardeners, coopers, nail makers, and even cooks who had been trained to prepare French cuisine prized by Jefferson. It was widely rumored that JeffersonÃ had a longtime affair with Sally Hemings, a slave who was the half-sister of Jeffersons late wife. James Madison:Ã The fourth president was born to a slave-owning family in Virginia. He owned slaves throughout his life. One of his slaves, Paul Jennings, lived in the White House as one of Madisons servants while a teenager. Jennings holds an interesting distinction:Ã a small book he published decades later is considered the first memoir of life in the White House. And, of course, it could also be considered a slave narrative. In A Colored Mans Reminiscences of James Madison, published in 1865, Jennings described Madison in complimentary terms. Jennings provided details about the episode in which objects from the White House, including the famous portrait of George Washington that hangs in the East Room, were taken from the mansion before the British burned it in August 1814. According to Jennings, the works of securing valuables was mostly done by the slaves, not by Dolley Madison. James Monroe:Ã Growing up on a Virginia tobacco farm, James Monroe would have been surrounded by slaves who worked the land. He inherited a slave named Ralph from his father, and as an adult, at his own farm, Highland, he owned about 30 slaves. Monroe thought colonization, the resettlement of slaves outside the United States, would be the eventual solution to the issue of slavery. He believed in the mission ofÃ the American Colonization Society, which was formed just before Monroe took office. The capitol of Liberia, which was founded by American slaves who settled in Africa, was named Monrovia in honor of Monroe. The Jacksonian Era Andrew Jackson:Ã During the four years John Quincy Adams lived in the White House, there were no slaves living on the property. That changed when Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, took office in March 1829.Ã Jackson harboredÃ no qualms about slavery. His business pursuits in the 1790s and early 1800s included slave trading, a point later raised by opponents during his political campaigns of the 1820s. Jackson first bought a slave in 1788, while a young lawyer and land speculator. He continued trading slaves, and a considerable part of his fortune would have been his ownership of human property. When he bought his plantation, The Hermitage, in 1804, he brought nine slaves with him. By the time he became president, the slave population, through purchase and reproduction, had grown to about 100. Taking up residence in the Executive Mansion (as the White House was known at the time), Jackson brought household slaves from The Hermitage, his estate in Tennessee.Ã After his two terms in office, Jackson returned to The Hermitage, where he continued to own a large population of slaves. At the time of his death Jackson owned approximately 150 slaves. Martin Van Buren:Ã As a New Yorker, Van Buren seems an unlikely slave owner. And, he eventually ran on the ticket of the Free-Soil Party, a political party of the late 1840s opposed to the spread of slavery. Yet slavery had been legal in New York when Van Buren was growing up, and his father owned a small number of slaves. As an adult, Van Buren owned one slave, who escaped. Van Buren seems to have made no effort to locate him. When he was finally discovered after ten years and Van Buren was notified, he allowed him to remain free. William Henry Harrison:Ã Though he campaigned in 1840 as a frontier character who lived in a log cabin, William Henry Harrison was born at Berkeley Plantation in Virginia. His ancestral home had been worked by slaves for generations, and Harrison would have grown up in considerable luxury which was supported by slave labor. He inherited slaves from his father, but owing to his particular circumstances, he did not own slaves for most of his life. As a young son of the family, heÃ would not inherit the familys land. So Harrison had to find a career, and eventually settled on the military. As military governor of Indiana, Harrison sought to make slavery legal in the territory, but that was opposed by the Jefferson administration. William Henry Harrisons slave-owning was decades behind him by the time he was elected president. And as he died in the White House a month after moving in, he had no impact on the issue of slavery during his very brief term in office. John Tyler:Ã The man who became president upon Harrisons death was a Virginian who had grown up in a society accustomed to slavery, and who owned slaves while president. Tyler was representative of the paradox, or hypocrisy, of someone who claimed that slavery was evil while actively perpetuating it. During his time as president he owned about 70 slaves who worked on his estate in Virginia. Tylers one term in office was rocky and ended in 1845. Fifteen years later, he participated in efforts to avoid the Civil War by reaching some sort of compromise which would have allowed slavery to continue. After the war began he was elected to the legislature of the Confederate States of America, but he died before he took his seat. Tyler has an unique distinction in American history: As he was actively involved in the rebellion of the slave states when he died, he is the only American president whose death was not observed with official mourning in the nations capital. James K. Polk:Ã The man whose 1844 nomination as a dark horse candidate surprised even himself was a slave owner from Tennessee. On his estate, Polk owned about 25 slaves. He was seen as being tolerant of slavery, yet not fanatical about the issue (unlike politicians of the day such as South Carolinas John C. Calhoun). That helped Polk secure the Democratic nomination at a time when discord over slavery was beginning to have a major impact on American politics. Polk did not live long after leaving office, and he still owned slaves at the time of his death. His slaves were to be freed when his wife died, though events, specifically the Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment, interceded to free them long before his wifes death decades later. Zachary Taylor:Ã The last president to own slaves while in office was a career soldier who had become a national hero in the Mexican War. Zachary Taylor also was a wealthy landowner and he possessed about 150 slaves. As the issue of slavery was beginning to split the nation, he found himself straddling the position of owning a large number of slaves while also seeming to lean against the spread of slavery. The Compromise of 1850, which essentially delayed the Civil War for a decade, was worked out on Capitol Hill while Taylor was president. But he died in office in July 1850, and the legislation really took effect during the term of his successor, Millard Fillmore (a New Yorker who had never owned slaves). After Fillmore, the next president was Franklin Pierce, who had grown up in New England and had no history of slave ownership. Following Pierce, James Buchanan, a Pennsylvanian, is believed to have purchased slaves whom he set free and employed as servants. Abraham Lincolns successor, Andrew Johnson, had owned slaves during his earlier life in Tennessee. But, of course, slavery became officially illegal during his term of office with the ratification of the 13th Amendment. The president who followed Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, had, of course, been a hero of the Civil War. And Grants advancing armies had freed a vast number of slaves during the final years of the war. Yet Grant, in the 1850s, had owned a slave. In the late 1850s, Grant lived with his family at White Haven, a Missouri farm which belonged to his wifes family, the Dents. The family had owned slaves who worked on the farm, and in the 1850s about 18 slaves were living on the farm. After leaving the Army, Grant managed the farm.Ã And he acquired one slave, William Jones, from his father in law (there are conflicting accounts about how that came to happen). In 1859 Grant freed Jones.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Examples of Interpersonal skills Professional development for strategic managers, including technical competence, social and human skills, and conceptual ability Examples of Interpersonal skills Professional development for strategic managers, including technical competence, social and human skills, and conceptual abilityIntroduction1.1Ã Personal Skills required to achieve Strategic Goals.Time managementEffective DelegationCommunication and the Management of ConflictStress Management1.2Ã Techniques to assess the professional skills required of a Manager2.1 skills audit to evaluate the strategic skills needed to meet current and future leadership requirementPsychological Testing2.2 Application of appropriate techniques to identify preferred learning styleReferencesRelated Professional development for strategic managers, including technical competence, social and human skills, and conceptual ability Introduction In order to carry out the process of management and the execution of work, the manager requires a combination of technical competence, social and human skills, and conceptual ability. As the manager advances up the organisational hierarchy, greater emphasis is likely to be placed on conceptual ability, and proportionately less on technical competence. (Mullins,1999). 1.1Ã Personal Skills required to achieve Strategic Goals. According to the work of Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell, as cited by (Mullins, 1999) From their experience of the nature of management work and research project, they identify 11 attributes which were possessed by successful managers and which could not be found with less successful managers. The attributes are grouped into three different levels but many of the qualities are interconnected and possession of one contributes to possession of another. Basic knowledge and information- this is needed by the manager in making decisions and taking action. This is the foundation level. (Mullins, 1999) The specific skills and qualities- this directly affect behaviour and performance. That is the skill or quality of continuing sensitivity to events allows managers to acquire basic knowledge and information. The Ã¢â¬Ëmeta-qualitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ allow managers to develop and deploy skills and resources, and to deploy the situation-specific skills needed in particular circumstances.(Mullins, 1999) Below are other personal skills of an effective manager: Time management Though it is currently a popular topic of attention, the significance of time management has long been recognised as an inherent feature of management. Drucker (1988) as cited by (Mullins, 1999) refers to time as the limiting factor for effective executives. Time is an irreplaceable resource you cannot rent, hire, buy or otherwise acquire more time. He further says that the supply of time is totally inelastic; time is completely irreplaceable and everything requires time. There are a number of suggested procedures and techniques for managing time, but the basic requirement of good time management include: Clear objectives; The ability to delegate successfully; Careful forward planning; The definition of priorities and action Stewart (1988) as cited by (Mullins, 1999) suggests that it is often helpful for managers to compare what they think they do against what they actually do in reality. Answers to the following questions will help managers decide what, if anything , they should check, and to review their effective management of time. I. Am i dividing my time correctly between different aspects of my job? Is there, perhaps, one part of my job on which I spend too much of my time? II. Am i giving adequate attention to current activities, to reviewing the past and to planning for the future? III. Am I certain that I am not doing any work that I ought to have delegated? However, inspite of developing interest in time management, it should not be viewed in isolation from related tasks of management, such as delegation and leadership. (Mullins, 1999) Effective Delegation Delegation is described as a process of entrusting authority and responsibilities to others, it is not just about illogical apportioning of work. It is the creation of a special manager-subordinate relationship within the formal structure of the organisation. (Mullins, 1999).Delegation should lead to the optimum use of human resources and improved organisational performance. Effective delegation allows manager to make profitable use of time, to concentrate on the more important activities and to spend more time in managing and less in doing. This should lead to a more even flow of work and a reductionÃ of bottlenecks.(Mullins, 1999) It will make managers more accessible for consultation with subordinates, or other managers, hence improving the process of communication. Effective delegation provides a means of training and development, and also of testing the subordinateÃ¢â¬â¢s suitability for promotion. It can be used as a means of assessing the likely performance of a subordinate. If managers have trained competent subordinates capable of taking their place this will not only aid organisational progress but also enhance their own prospects for further advancement. (Mullins, 1999) Another area to be discussed is the area of communication and the management of conflict Communication and the Management of Conflict It has been made known that diverse perspectives, practices and perceptions have to be accommodated, or otherwise made productive, in order to meet an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall goals. (McCall and Cousins, 1990).These differences can, depending on the circumstances, be overt or covert. They can take place between superiors and subordinates. In the great majority of situations conflict is either present or threatens to be present. However for manager to handle conflict effectively, a useful framework of Pondy (1967) as cited by (McCall and Cousins, 1990) who saw conflict as having a number of different phases. The first phase is latent conflict, in which two or more parties co-operate with each other and compete for certain rewards. This could be measurable in terms of bonuses or effectiveness benchmarks. The second phase is perceived conflict. This is a situation where group rely on each other and one believes that the other is pursuing a course of action which is harmful to its members (McCall and Cousins,1990). The third phase is felt conflict, in which differences of interests and opinions are given expression in specific issues which take on and added significance because they symbolise how the parties feel about each other. It is at this stage that the manager start to make choices. How he defines situation may be a conscious or unconscious choice, depending on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of the alternatives and the forces at work on him; how they orient themselves in terms of degree of assertiveness and co-operativeness will influence the ease with which conflict can be managed. (McCall and Cousins, 1990) Strategies for managing conflict Ã¢â¬â the strategy to be adopted by a manager will vary according to the nature and sources of conflict.(Mullins, 1999) Personnel policies and proceduress are : job analysis, recruitment and selection, job evaluation; systems of reward and punishment, arbitration and mediation. Development of interpersonal/group process skills- this may help to encourage a better understanding of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own behaviour, the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, communication process and problem solving. Leadership and management- a more participative and supportive style of leadership and managerial behaviour is likely to assist in conflict management. For example, showing an attitude of respect and trust; encouraging personal self-development. A participative approach to leadership and management may also help to create greater employee commitment. Clarification of goals and objectives- the continual refinement and clarification of goals and objectives, performance standards, role definition will help to avoid misunderstandings and conflict. Socio-technical approach- viewing the organisation as a socio-technical system, in which psychological and socio factors are developed in keeping the structural and technical requirements, will help in reducing dysfunctional conflict.(Mullins, 1999) Stress Management Stress as defined by McKenna and cited by (Mullins, 1999) as any condition that is seen as threatening, burdensome, ambiguous or boring is possibly to result in stress. (Mullins, 1999) cited Handy who suggests some organisational situations that are likely to result to stress for individual at work. These are; Integrative or boundary functions- the particularly stressful role to the coordinator, link person or outside contact, perhaps due to the lack of control over their demands or resources. Career uncertainty- if future career prospects become doubtful the uncertainty can quickly become stressful and spread to affect the personÃ¢â¬â¢s duty. Relationship problems- difficulties with boss, colleagues or subordinates. For certain people, especially those with a technical orientation, the need to work with other people is a worrying complication. Strategies for coping with stress; I.Ã Need to examine the reward system- for example pay and intangible rewards II. Relaxation techniques- this includes considering counselling and advice systems. III. Employee appraisal- manager can review target setting and controlling expectations IV. Training- this could be on stress awareness, assertiveness, time planning. (Mullins, 1999) 1.2Ã Techniques to assess the professional skills required of a Manager As Management has become more about managing people than managing operations, however, and social and human skills reflect the ability to get along with other people are progressively important attributes at all levels of management. However a simplistic approach, the following framework provides a useful basis from which to examine the combination and balance of the qualities of an effective manager. The degree of technical competence or conceptual ability will vary according to the level of the organisation at which the manager operates. Conceptual ability Ã¢â¬â this is required in order to view the complexities of the operations of the organisation as a whole, including environmental influences. It also involves decision-making skills. The manager Ã¢â¬Ës personal contribution should be related to the overall objectives of the organisation and to its strategic planning.(Mullins, 1999) Technical competence-Ã this involves the application of particular knowledge, methods and skills to discrete tasks. Technical competence is likely to be required more at the supervisory level and for the training of subordinate staff, and with day-to-day activities concerned in the actual production of goods or services. Social and human skills- has to do with the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s interpersonal relationships in working with and through other people, and the application of judgement. A distinguishing feature of management is the ability to secure the effective use of human resources of the organisation. This involves effective teamwork and the direction and leadership of staff to achieve co-ordinated effort. It is under this that effective manager could find sensitivity to particular situations, and flexibility in adopting the most appropriate style of management. (Mullins, 1999) 2.1 skills audit to evaluate the strategic skills needed to meet current and future leadership requirement It is undeniable that various occupations require different skills, competencies and abilities. It is also the case that individuals differ with regard to their mental capabilities and the degree at which they relate them at work. The Ã¢â¬ËhappyÃ¢â¬â¢ scenario is that a match should occur between the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and their occupation, but reality suggests that this is not the case always. The excesses include employees bored inflexible with a simple task who become careless in their attitude and make a succession of mistakes and the employees who have been promoted beyond their capability. The result could be stress either for the individuals unable to cope or their work colleagues who are picking up the debris left behind. It can be assumed that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability is dependent upon his or her intelligence. (Mullins, 1999). In a similar vein to the studies of personality, different schools of thought have emerged with regard to the study of abilities. Simi lar debates to the ones that surround the study of personality have also twirled around the research on intelligence. (Mullins, 1999) Psychological Testing Furthermore the early tests of intelligence have evolved into a large psychological business. Tests are broadly divided by the British Psychological Society into: Tests of typical performance. These assess individual typical responses to given scenarios. Here, answers indicate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s choices and strength of feelings. Answers are not right or wrong as such, but identify preferences. Personality assessment and interest inventories are examples of such tests. (Mullins, 1999). Tests of maximum performance. These assess an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform effectively under standard conditions. Performance on these tests, which include ability and aptitude tests, can be judged as right or wrong. Ability tests come in many various forms and may test a general intellectual functioning or a specific ability (such as verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning, etc.) Modern Occupational Skills Tests are an example of specific ability tests and measure a range of clerical and administrative skills: verbal checking; technical checking, numerical estimation, etc. they claim to be an aid in the selection of administrative staff. Other methods that could be used to conduct the skills audit include: Checking current records for example, training records to identify what staff have been trained in. Observing staff as they carry out their various tasks and analysing the outcomes for quality. Using surveys to find out what peers or supervisors observe are the skills, knowledge, needs and weaknesses. Carrying out interviews with employees. This could be part of a performance review. (www.records.nsw.gov.au) 2.2 Application of appropriate techniques to identify preferred learning style It is essential for the long-term health and future of the organisation that managers understand the learning process to ensure that not only the needs of individuals are met but that the store of wisdom and Ã¢â¬Ëknow-howÃ¢â¬â¢ can flow effectively. Theories of learning can act as a framework for managers to help in the identification and analysis of problems. (Mullins, 1999) In order to understand how people learn, cognitive factors must be taken into account. Observing changes in behaviour is only part of the learning process. Attention must be given to a countless of individual factors, in order to understand how and why the people learn. People learn not only by association and rewards, but by having knowledge of their results and by receiving feedback. The success of their desired aims and goals motivates and drives people to learn. This has brought about making theorists and educationists to consider the ways in which people learn through experience. (Mullins, 1999) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://academic.regis.eduÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some cognitive theorists have emphasised the cyclical nature of learning and its active nature. Davis(1990) as cited by (Mullins, 1999) for example, claims that Ã¢â¬Ëexperiential learning is an integration and alternation of thinking and doingÃ¢â¬â¢. KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s learning cycle is typical of this approach and is the one that is most often used in the management literature. It provides beneficial insights into the nature of learning: It shows that learning is endless, but only another turn of the cycle. It identifies the significance of reflection and internalisation. It is a useful way in recognising problems in the learning process. Learners are not passive recipients but need to actively explore and test the environment. (Mullins, 1999) Moreover, the approach highlights the significance of the fusion between an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and the evaluation of their actions. The important part of the learning process is the reflection of what has been learned in order to experiment with new situations and to become aware of new possibilities. It is the real essence of action learning; by going through the cycle that learners are opened to applying, reflecting and testing out their learning. This encourages individuals in habits harmonious with the concept of life-long learning. Hence, it is no surprise that Kolb addresses his concepts to managers and suggests that experiential learning will enable managers to cope with change and complexities. He made a suggestion that: A main function of strategic management developmentÃ¢â¬ ¦is to for managers to have access to knowledge and relationship networks that can aid them in becoming life-long learners and cope with issues on their continually dynamic agendas. Relating his learning cycle to the study of individual differences, Kolb demonstrated that individuals may have a preference for one of the main stages and therein lies their learning style, (Mullins, 1999). The four different styles of learning identified by Kolb are: Accommodative-strong penchant for concrete experiences and active experimentation (hands on); Divergent preference for concrete experiences, but to reflect on these from different viewpoint; Assimilative prefers to swing between reflection and conceptualisation and will use inductive reasoning to develop new theory; Convergent prefers to apply ideas, and will take an idea and test it out In practice. (Kolb,1985) as cited by (Mullins, 1999) Honey and Mumford(1992) as cited by (Mullins, 1999) refined KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style questionnaire by simplifying his learning cycle. The outcome is that managers can identify whether they are predominantly: ActivistÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã what is new? IÃ¢â¬â¢m game for anything. ReflectorÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã I would like time to think about this. PragmatistÃ Ã how can I apply this in practice? TheoristÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã how does this relate to that? The scholars assert that an understanding of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s learning styles will improve learning effectiveness. And also that an integrated and effective learner will be prepared to manage all four styles even though they may have a favourite. References ATKINS, M.J., BEATTIE, J. and DOCKRELL, W.B., Assessment Issues in Higher Education, Department of Employment (October 1993), p.51. CHARSLEY, W.F. Ã¢â¬ËEffective Management-so you think youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got it right?Ã¢â¬â¢ British Journal of Administrative Management, vol.1, November 1986, pp.11-12. See also: ALLEN,T. Hands off Local GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Today, September 1993, p.5. DAVIS,L. Experience-Based Learning Within the Curriculum, Council for National Academic Awards (1990) DRUCKER, P. The Practice of Management, Heinemann Professional (1989), p.3. GALLWEY, W.T. The Inner Game of Golf, Jonathan Cape (1981), p.19. HANDY, C.B. Understanding Organisations, Fourth edition, Penguin (1993) HONEY, P. and MUMFORD, A. The Manual of Learning Styles, Third edition, Honey (1992) HONEY, P .Ã¢â¬â¢Styles of LearningÃ¢â¬â¢ in MUMFORD, A. (ed.) Handbook of Management Development, Fourth edition, Gower (1994) JOHNS, T. Perfect Time Management, Century Business (1993) and VAND DE VLIET, A. Ã¢â¬ËBeat the Time BanditsÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Today, May 1997, pp.90-2. KOLB, D.A., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Prentice- Hall (1985) LUTHANS, F. Ã¢â¬â¢Successful vs. Effective Real ManagersÃ¢â¬â¢, The Academy of Management Executive, vol.11, no.2, 1988, pp.127-32. Ã¢â¬ËManaging Your Time EffectivelyÃ¢â¬â¢ Management Checklist 016, The Institute of Management, 1997. McCALL, I. and COUSINS, J. (1990) Communication Problem Solving, Ã¢â¬ËThe Language of Effective ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢, Courier International LTD, Essex. MULLINS, L.J. Ã¢â¬ËSuccessful Training- A Planned and Systematic ApproachÃ¢â¬â¢, Administrator, July 1991, pp.4-5. MULLINS, L.J. (1999) Management and Organisational Behaviour, Fifth edition, Pitman Publishing, Great Britain. REES, W.D. The Skills of Management, Fourth edition, International Thompson Business Press (1996), p.26. SNAPE, E., WILKINSON, A., MARCHINGTON, M. and REDMAN, T. Ã¢â¬ËManaging Human Resources for TQM: Possibilities and PitfallsÃ¢â¬â¢, Employee Relations, vol.17.no.3, 1995, pp.42-51. STEWART, R. Managers and Their Jobs, second edition, MacMillan (1988), p.123. Ã¢â¬ËTraining for AdvantageÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Today, May 1997, p.89. Training Learning Consultancy LTD. Bristol, England. STERNBERG, R.J. and WAGNER, R.K. Practical Intelligence, Cambridge University Press (1986) http:// academic.regis.edu/ed202/subsequent/Kolb2.htm. (accessed on 18th of June 2011) www.records.nsw.gov.au/recordkeeping/government-recordkeeping-manual/guidance/guidlines-17/guideline-17-part-2. (accessed on 18th June 2011)
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China in the 21st Century - Thesis Example However, it should also be noted in this regard that the stated facets should not be distorted just for the reason of sustaining or for supporting a specific policy consequence1. The existence of intelligence activities in a particular democracy is learnt to exist since long. It is considered to necessary for a certain democracy for the reason of defending the particular state or country in opposition to every form of threats with respect to the national security. The services related to the security intelligence are considered to be facet related to the police force of the nation and so is considered to be a legal activity. It was long forecasted by various analysts of the West that China was competent enough to have a greater degree of control as well as influence with respect to the global scenario. China is considered to be the sole nation in order to value the annual assessments of the different military activities with regard to the United States Congress. ... with respect to China, the most potential and imperative aspect of the nation, which is measured to be its intelligence has been learnt to be usually ignored by the US. It needs to be mentioned in this regard that the intelligence activities conducted by China was viewed to be amongst the greatest risks posed to the US in the recent times2. Thesis Statement The study would intend to focus on the activities that are carried out by the intelligence agencies of China or rather the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (PRC). Various attempts are found to be made by the PRC to obtain information regarding the programs related to the nuclear weapons. It also requires to be mentioned in this respect that China has already proved to be successful to a significant extent in getting hold of the desired kind of information. In relation to this particular context, the assortment of methods that are learnt to be made use of by the PRC in order to collect information from the US would also be concent rated on along with providing a detailed explanation for each. Based on the provided explanation, the most effective method engaged by the PRC which could be measured to be the greatest threat for the US would be ascertained. Human Intelligence Overseas The Chinese espionage is considered to be managed primarily by two different agencies, i.e. the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Liberation Army (PLA), particularly the Second Department of the General Staff Department of the PLA and the Ministry of State Security (MSS). While the facet of intelligence is perceived to be quite a recognizable complexity for any intelligence forecaster, the modus operandi of the Chinese intelligence is however known to offer some form of new realistic complicatedness with regard to the attempts put in by the western